Recovery Facilities for Solid Waste

November 2021

Indicative Return:

20% – 25%

Investment Timeframe

Medium Term (5–10 years)

Business Model Description

Investments in Building and Operating Recovery Facilities for Solid Waste

Expected Impact

The IOA can reduce pollution stemming from the dumping of non-biodegradable and toxic waste into landfills.

Regions

Mediterranean Region, Black Sea Region

Sector
Waste Management > Infrastructure

Direct Impact SDGs:

Indirect Impact SDGs:

Sector
Infrastructure

Development need: Turkey’s performance on SDG 9 (Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure) exhibits major challenges, and significant challenges still remain for SDG 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production) according to the Sustainable Development Report 2020. (1)

Policy priority: The New Economy Program covering 2020-2022 emphasizes that projects on the “Zero Waste Initiative” will be extended. (2)

Gender inequalities and marginalization issues: Within the infrastructure sector, there is a high rate of informality among solid waste collectors. Workers in this area suffer from poor working conditions and a lack of social security. In terms of the provision of utilities, households with lower income levels face the risk of energy poverty. Fair employment practices and pricing mechanisms need to be implemented to address the issues of marginality within this sector. Investments in this area need to generate job opportunities within the green economy and promote energy-efficiency measures to decrease the household consumption costs.

Investment opportunities: The government has planned the following public investment amounts for urban infrastructure areas for 2020: 198 million TRY (29 million USD) for urbanization, 152 million TRY (22 million USD) for communication infrastructure, 71 million TRY (10 million USD) for environment and 67 million TRY (10 million USD) for municipal services. (3)

Key bottlenecks: Given high investment and operations costs, human capital and technology resources and governance needs, some urban infrastructure services such as wastewater treatment facilities cannot reach the desired efficiency levels. New models are needed to improve efficiency in urban infrastructure. (4)

Subsector
Waste Management

Development need: SDG 9 is identified as one of the priority SDGs in the context of Turkey and as one of the most relevant SDGs for Turkey to achieve the Global Goals acording to the VNR 2019 report. (5)

Policy priority: The government has a main objective to improve urban infrastructure with a focus on provision of clean drinking water, treated wastewater and an active solid waste management system. (6)

Gender inequalities and marginalization issues: There is a high rate of informality in the waste management sector of Turkey. Waste-pickers suffer from poor working conditions and a lack of social security. It is estimated that the informal recycling sector could be responsible for up to 30% of solid waste management. This is a key area of income for the urban poor and ethnic minorities. (14) (15)

Investment opportunities: Turkey’s Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI) figures show that infrasture in ICT, integrated MSW (municipal solid waste) and treatment and disposal still needs a higher private sector engagement. (7)

Key bottlenecks: Given high investment and operations costs, human capital and technology resources and governance needs, some urban infrastructure services such as wastewater treatment facilities cannot reach the desired efficiency levels. New models are needed to improve efficiency in urban infrastructure. (4)

Market Size and Environment
Critical IOA Unit

The total municipal waste is estimated to reach 33 million tonnes by 2023. (8)

The investments necessary to build recycling and recovery facilities and sanitary landfills in alignment with national standards varies between 1.7-2.9 billion EUR with sanitary landfills accounting for 370-618 million EUR. (8)

Indicative Return

20% – 25%

“Investors already active in the construction of waste recovery facilities in Turkey estimate an IRR between 20-25%. Investors engaging in the operation of waste recovery facilities estimate an IRR between 5-7%.”

Investment Timeframe

Medium Term (5–10 years)

The usual timeframe for investments in constructing and operating recovery facilities for solid waste is limited with the duty periods of municipalities, which is 5 years.

Ticket Size

More than USD 10 million

Market Risks & Scale Obstacles

Market – Highly Regulated
Investments in waste recovery/recycling facilities have been limited to municipalities duty periods (5 years). However, investments pay for themselves in 8-9 years. The shorter agreement periods discourage private sector firms from covering maintenance costs.
Capital – CapEx Intensive
Municipalities lack the financial and technical capacity to operate profitable waste management facilities. Initial investment costs are high for private sector without incentives.
Capital – Limited Investor Interest
Since municipalities are subject to change via elections, waste management investments or relations with private companies tend to be short-term as subsequent local authorities might change or reverse the actions of their predecessors.

Sustainable Development Need

According to OECD, Turkey still faces insufficient recovery and recycling of municipal solid waste. Despite some progress in waste treatment infrastructure, 90% of municipal waste is sent to landfills. Only 6% of municipal waste was collected seperately in 2016. (9)

According to the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, 6% (1.5 million tonnes) of municipal waste goes to recovery plants, while 64% (17.5 million tonnes) is kept at sanitary landfills and 30% (8.1 million tonnes) goes to irregular landfills. (8)

11.9% of municipal waste such as glass, metal, paper, plastic, etc. that are collected seperately by municipalities and sent to recovery facilities and other wastes sent to biogas and composting facilities. (10)

Gender & Marginalisation

The waste collection and management sector heavily involves informal workers with no access to social protection

Expected Development Outcome

The IOA can reduce environmental pollution stemming from dumping of non-biodegradable and toxic waste into landfills.

The IOA can rehabillitate wild dumping sites by increasing the share of recovery and sanitary landfills in waste disposal to 35% and 65%, respectively by 2023. (8)

This IOA can increase resource efficiency by increasing share of recovery and recycling in the waste disposal processes and reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse.

Gender & Marginalisation

This IOA can reduce waste release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment, which is heavily concentrated around peripheral settlements.

Primary SDGs addressed

9 – Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

9.4.1 CO2 emission per unit of value added

Current Level0.41 kg of CO2 per constant 2010 US$ (11)

11 – Sustainable Cities and Communities

11.6.1 Proportion of municipal solid waste collected and managed in controlled facilities out of total municipal waste generated, by cities

11.6.2 Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g. PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted)

Current Level41.97 mgr/m^3 (11)

41.97 mgr/m^3 (11)

12 – Responsible Consumption and Production

12.5.1 National recycling rate, tons of material recycled

12.4.2 (a) Hazardous waste generated per capita; and (b) proportion of hazardous waste treated, by type of treatment

Current Level151,505.1 tonnes (11)

(b) 6,623,186 tonnes (11)

Secondary SDGs addressed

Directly impacted stakeholders

People
Communities living close to wild dumping sites are directly benefited from waste recovery practices through reduced pollution.
Gender inequality and/or marginalization
people inhabiting rural or peripheral settlements who lack access to waste collection whose health is heavily affected
Planet
Air and soil quality are significantly improved through the reduction in wild dumping sites.
Public sector
1397 municipalities of which 30 are metropolitan and Organized Industrial Sites directly benefit from waste recovery.

Indirectly impacted stakeholders

People
Taxpayers and industrial electricity consumers can benefit from biogas energy produced from organic waste.

Outcome Risks

Increasing recycling investments without proper circular economy and waste prevention incentives might reduce resource costs for companies, driving mass consumption further.

Impact Risks

Efficiency Risk given the heavy involvement of local authorities in waste management

Endurance Risk given that the investment timeframes are heavily dependent on the duty terms of municipalities

Impact Classification

B—Benefit Stakeholders

What

Reduced waste levels and increased recovery.

Who

Investments in solid waste recovery are expected to directly serve vulnerable communities living close to wild dumping sites, and indirectly serve industry’s clean energy and resource needs.

Risk

High involvement of municipalities in solid waste management expose investments to uncertainty in terms of governance and leaves little governance capability for firms to maximize impact.

Impact Thesis

The IOA can reduce pollution stemming from the dumping of non-biodegradable and toxic waste into landfills.

Policy Environment

(11th Development Plan): 2.4.5. Urban Infrastructure, 696. An active solid waste management system that help reducing harmful effects on human health and negative environmental impacts and ensuring eliminating, recycling and recovery present the sector’s another main objectives.

(11th Development Plan): 2.4.5. Urban Infrastructure, 699. Implementation tools, particularly PPP, will be developed to ensure resource efficiency and environmental responsibility in solid waste management.

11th Development Plan, 2.4.5. Urban Infrastructure, 699. By enabling solid waste management, waste reduction, resource separation, separate collection, transportation, recovery, disposal phases and rehabilitation of irregular/wild dump areas will be developed technically and financially as a whole.

11th Development Plan, 2.4.5. Urban Infrastructure, 700. Domestic solid waste recovery and disposal facility projects and transfer station projects that local administrations with inadequate financial power have difficulty in financing will be supported within the scope of a program.

Financial Environment

Financial incentives: The Development and Investment Bank of Turkey signed a 3-year-nonrecourse 20-year loan agreement with KfW to finance infrastructure projects targeting sustainability. (12)

Investments in waste recovery and disposal facilities over 5 million TRY in these areas are eligible for Region 5 incentives regardless of location, which include VAT exception, customs duty exemption, tax deduction, land allocation, interest/profit share support and so on (13)

Other incentives: Investments over 1 million TRY in regions 1 and 2, and over 500,000 TRY in regions 3, 4, 5 and 6 are eligible for “Regional Investment Incentives”: VAT exemption, tax deduction, social security premium support, income tax withholding support, land allocation etc. (13)

Regulatory Environment

Regulation): The ultimate regulator of waste management in Turkey is the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, while other public bodies such as the Ministry of Interior and Ministry of Health are also involved as per their respective mandates.

(Regulation): Turkish Law on Environment no. 2872 creates the basis of the legal framework for waste management practices in Turkey.

(Regulation): The “Waste Management Regulation” published in the Official Gazette issue no. 29314 of 02.04.2015 aims to ensure an environmentally harmless waste disposal process.

According to the Law on Environment, municipalities are responsible for the municipal waste management processes. According to the Law on Metropolitan Municipalities no. 5216 and the Law on Municipalities no. 5393, local governments are in charge of waste management.

Collection/sorting and recycling facilities are required to obtain environment licenses.

PRIVATE SECTOR

İSTAÇ, Anel Doğa Entegre Geri Dönüşüm Endüstri A.Ş., Süreko A.Ş.

GOVERNMENT

Municipalities are legally responsible for the municipal waste management processes. Ministry of Environment and Urbanization also supports investments in solid waste management. İlbank.

MULTILATERALS

EBRD, World Bank, EU through IPA funding

NON-PROFIT

ÇEVKO, TAYÇED.